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May 07, 2018

Glass Materials and Batching

Glass contains three major categories of constituents - formers, fluxes, and network modifiers. Silicon dioxide (SiO2), or sand, is used as the former and basic constituent with soda ash (Na2CO3) as the flux. Lime (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaCO3MgCO3) are network modifiers that stabilize the chemical properties of the glass.


Batch Plant Storage

The batch plant receives the delivery of raw ingredients for glass making. Delivery of these ingredients varies from site-to-site, particularly when the plant is installed in a country where some of the ingredients are imported rather than domestic. The types of materials can be divided into two principal groups: bulk ingredients including sand, cullet, soda ash, limestone, etc., and "small ingredients" - various combinations of minor ingredients that are used to change physical properties of glass including color, transparency, and refraction.

Batch plant storage systems are almost entirely dependent on the quantity of materials to be stored and the period of time for delivery of replacement materials. Production demand and delivery time of materials are critical factors in deciding how to

Bath Plant Mixing

Poor materials, inefficient mixing, or excessive segregation of the batch following mixing can adversely affect the operation of the melting furnace and quality of melt. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the materials, as fed into the furnace, represent a mixture suitable for the melting furnace. Handling of the required ingredients, their weighing and mixing, requires special considerations. The number of ingredients, plus quantities to be handled, are such that normal bulk handling techniques cannot normally be used.

Batch Plant Control

The degree and measure of plant control systems are a matter of economics and desired mode of plant control. Ideally, each section of the plant should, where possible, be autonomous with respect to its ability to function separately from other sections of the plant.

In an ideal system, the batch plant should be arranged for single-shift independence, capable of batching and storing the 8-hour needs of the furnace. This system should also have a control system that will permit automatic start-up and control of the batch plant for topping up the furnace hopper as required, with automatic cut-off as soon as the furnace hopper is full.

Our latest innovations

July 27, 2018

Feasibility Study


Stewart Engineers can help you quantify risks and ensure financial feasibility before investing in glass manufacturing. Investing in float glass is challenging for new entrants. How can you verify the viability of an idea when there are many smal... Read More→

July 27, 2018

Glass Manufacturing


Stewart Engineers builds high-quality float glass manufacturing facilities around the world. We use our considerable experience in float glass to design and build float facilities that maximize profit. Technologies like the StewartFloat® ... Read More→

June 19, 2018

Make CVD Part of your Future


Among the first uses for CVD was refining metals like nickel. Ludwig Mond developed a method that purified nickel using CVD. The company which Mond founded, Mond Nickel Company, merged into the International Nickel Company, which was ultimately ... Read More→

May 07, 2018

History of Glass


How to turn Sand into Glass The raw material from which glass is made is silica, the most abundant of all the earth's minerals. Milky white in color, it is found in many forms of rock, including granite. And as every beach in the world has been for... Read More→

May 07, 2018

Float Glass Cutting and Packing


The final manufacturing process for float glass is the Cutting and Packing line. The cutting and packing conveyor is immediately downstream of the annealing lehr. It is comprised of special roller sections that are capable of transporting glass pro... Read More→

May 07, 2018

Float Glass Annealing Lehr


What is a lehr? A glass annealing lehr—also called a lehr oven— is a long, temperature controlled, kiln. Lehrs are typically 6m wide and 120m long, with an adjustable temperature gradient through which the glass passes. In the case... Read More→

May 07, 2018

Glass Forming


Forming Technology Flat glass is manufactured using one of three processes: the sheet process, the plate process, or the float process. The float glass process has, almost entirely, replaced the sheet glass and plate glass processes. Sheet Glass Th... Read More→

May 07, 2018

Glass Materials and Batching


Glass contains three major categories of constituents - formers, fluxes, and network modifiers. Silicon dioxide (SiO2), or sand, is used as the former and basic constituent with soda ash (Na2CO3) as the flux. Lime (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaCO3MgCO3) a... Read More→

May 07, 2018

Glass Melting Process


Melting The typical melting furnace is a Six Port Cross Fired Regenerative furnace with a capacity of 500 tons per day. Cross fired regenerative furnaces have been built for very small and very large melting areas. The smallest units may be unecono... Read More→

April 10, 2018

Glass Coating Technology Comparison


A variety of techniques are available to deposit thin films onto flat glass. The most widely used of these for producing high-quality functional coatings can be subdivided into two classes: Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) and Chemical Vapor Depositi... Read More→

March 21, 2018

Building Wealth in Float Glass


Float glass manufacturing is a wealth generating industry. Float glass was invented in the 1950s, and the industry has grown steadily since then. Float glass offers a promising opportunity for investors that are aware of a populous area with unmet g... Read More→